Slaughter, D.A. Other common understory species include saplings of canopy tree species (especially silver and red maple), musclewood (Carpinus caroliniana), and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). Characterization of wetland hydrodynamics using HGM and subclassification methods in southeastern Michigan, USA. Invasive plant species that can reduce diversity and alter community structure of hardwood-conifer swamps include reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), reed (Phragmites australis subsp. Wells, B.L. Forrester, J.A., T.E. Cohen, J.G., M.A. Wenger, J.D. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 113: 357-371. Beavertown Lakes, Newberry State Forest Management Unit and The Nature Conservancy (Two-Hearted River Forest Preserve), Luce Co. Clinton River Headwaters, Independence Oaks County Park, Oakland County Parks, Oakland Co. Long Lake, Yankee Springs State Recreation Area, Barry Co. Mill Creek Swamp, Three Rivers State Game Area, Cass Co. and St. Joseph Co. Tahquamenon River, Tahquamenon Falls State Park, Chippewa Co. and Luce Co. Anderson, K.L., and D.J. Conversion of conifer-dominated stands to hardwood dominance is frequently associated with anthropogenic disturbances such as logging, hydrologic alteration, and fire suppression. An underlying impermeable clay lens is often present and allows for prolonged pooling of water. For a full list of references used to create this description, please refer to the natural community abstract for Hardwood-Conifer Swamp. Digital map. Available https://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/communities/classification. https://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/communities/classification, Natural Communities of Michigan: Classification and Description. Hardwood, MI Directions {{::location.tagLine.value.text}} Sponsored Topics. Soils are typically loam or silt loam, sometimes sandy loam or clay loam, of neutral to mildly alkaline pH (sandy substrates are more acidic), and sometimes covered by a thin layer of muck. View the Sanctuary Fact Sheet Coarse woody debris, which typically lies above the zone of flooding, remains a continued source of saturated substrate for seed germination and seedling establishment through drier periods. Floodplains, swamps, and seasonal pools offer water, food, and cover for many kinds of birds and mammals. Alcona County, MI (5 maps) Waller. 2005. 2007. Small forested seeps embedded in a matrix of dry-mesic and mesic southern forest in southern Lower Michigan are currently placed in this classification, and sometimes include species otherwise absent in mixed hardwood swamp, including Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra), pawpaw (Asimina triloba), blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata), and hackberry. Going north, they can be found in hemlock-northern hardwood forests. Sites on saturated organic soil of relatively stable hydrology are typically dominated by red maple and black ash. There is a hardwood swamp around the fringes of the wetland and the uplands are primarily composed of northern mesic and dry-mesic forest with a few small sandy ridges reminiscent of pine-barrens. Help. Southern hardwood swamp is a forested wetland community type found in insular basins with seasonally high water tables. • Northern Hardwood Swamp* • Hardwood-Conifer Swamp* • Rich Tamarack Swamp* • Rich Conifer Swamp* • Poor Conifer Swamp . There is a shrub dominated wetland in the southwestern corner which is predominantly composed of buttonbush and alder. Albert, H.A. In large wetland complexes, southern hardwood swamp is typically associated with a variety of other herbaceous, shrub, and forested wetland communities. Conifers are absent or local. Vegetation - Environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. Hardwood swamp forests are another form of the lowland deciduous forest. Cohen, B.S. Price, D.M. Albert, J.M. Expansion of red maple in some stands, often following logging or hydrologic disturbance, limits conifer seedling establishment and recruitment by reducing light availability at the ground level. 1995. Swamp hardwoods cover about 2.4 million acres of forestland — about 15 percent of the Michigan forest. Hydrologic alteration associated with agriculture, roads, or other development can alter species composition and structure, and foster establishment of invasive species. Northern Michigan Hardwoods, Inc. is committed to producing the finest in hardwood lumber and flooring. In southern Lower Michigan, hardwoods, typically red maple, black ash, and yellow birch, dominate some stands, with a significant component of white pine and northern white-cedar. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Michigan State University Extension, Lansing, Michigan. NMH has expanded and grown to include a forestry crew, sawmill, dry kiln, molding department and showroom/gift shop Monitoring and control efforts to detect and remove invasive species are critical to the long-term viability of southern hardwood swamp. Hart, J.B. Raab, D.L. Plant community survey of the Lake Erie Drainage. NatureServe. Orr, S.P., J.A. The creation of canopy gaps and associated microtopographic heterogeneity has important consequences for the establishment and recruitment of canopy trees. ), northern bugle weed (Lycopus uniflorus), false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris), cinnamon fern, sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), jewelweed, and clearweed (Pilea spp.) Dominance patterns among common canopy constituents vary based on site-specific factors. Organic soils are typically saturated, highly decomposed, sapric peat (i.e., muck) and frequently contain pieces of coarse wood throughout their soil profiles. M.S. At Kamps Hardwoods, we believe that good service is good business. Cochrane. australis), autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus). Beaver can cause prolonged flooding that substantially alters wetland community structure, converting southern hardwood swamps to a broad range of wetland types, depending on landscape position, soils, and depth and duration of flooding. Windthrow and fluctuating water levels are the primary natural disturbances that structure hardwood-conifer swamp. Emerald ash borer, an invasive insect, has reduced or eliminated ash as an important component of upland and lowland forest types in southeastern Michigan and has the potential to significantly impact ash populations in forested wetlands and uplands throughout the state. Windthrow creates a pit and mound microtopography, and variously sized canopy gaps, which promote regeneration of a diverse overstory. 2020. Maintaining mature, seed-bearing conifer trees is important for ensuring the continued presence of seed sources within the wetland. Hardwood swamps are found in shallow depressions or in narrow zones along the margins of lakes, rivers, and peatlands. In southeastern Minnesota, this habitat occurs as small patches in areas of groundwater seepage, usually at the base of steep slopes on level river terraces. Weber, and K.A. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. (231) 464-5809 info@coldstreamfarm.net Water levels fluctuate seasonally, with standing water typically occurring throughout winter and spring. Hardwood-conifer swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods and conifers, occurring on organic (i.e., peat) and poorly drained mineral soils throughout Michigan. In 1800, hard- wood swamps comprised about five percent (1.7 million acres) of the state's land base, and most were found in southern Lower Michigan. Tree species typical of floodplain forest are often present, including hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides). 2007-21, Lansing, MI. Kost, B.S. Pin oak and swamp white oak are included in southern Lower Michigan and quaking aspen, bigtooth aspen, and balsam poplar can be found throughout northern Michigan swamps. Operated on the campus of Michigan State University, shop.msu.edu carries a variety of exclusive Spartan items. Swamps by County. For information about plant species, visit the Michigan Flora website. Significant hydrological processes impacting hardwood-conifer swamp include groundwater seepage, water table fluctuation, seasonal inundation, and flooding events (often associated with beaver activity). Invasive plant species that threaten the diversity and community structure include garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), reed (Phragmites australis subsp. Hardwood-conifer swamp is typically associated with headwater streams or shallow kettle depressions in poorly drained outwash channels or in depressions on outwash plains, medium- to coarse-textured end moraines, and glacial lakeplains. Due to anaerobic conditions associated with prolonged inundation and a high water table, trees are shallowly rooted and prone to frequent blowdown. 1999. Growth is often slow because of site limitations. Schneider, G.J., and K.E. Rich conifer swamp is a groundwater-influenced, minerotrophic, forested wetland dominated by northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) that occurs on organic soils (i.e., peat) primarily north of the climatic tension zone in the northern Lower and Upper Peninsulas. This layer is characterized by saplings of canopy species, in addition to mountain maple (Acer spicatum), tag alder (Alnus incana), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), musclewood (Carpinus caroliniana), red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), gray dogwood (C. foemina), winterberry (Ilex verticillata), poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix), and spicebush (Lindera benzoin). 2020. Characteristic low shrubs include American fly honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis) and alder-leaved buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia). Palustrine/Terrestrial (1, rare) ... Support for this work was provided by the Michigan DNR and numerous other federal, state, and local partners, including MDEQ, Plant species composition is influenced by groundwater seepage rich in calcium and magnesium carbonates. Insect outbreaks and plant parasites can set back or kill conifers, altering community composition and structure. Maintaining mature, senescent, and dead canopy trees within hardwood-conifer swamp stands ensures a continuing source of the large-diameter coarse woody debris important for seedling germination and survival. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. We offer unfinished and prefinished hardwood, in both solid and engineered, as well as all products necessary for installing, sanding, and finishing a hardwood floor. Michigan Hardwood is a small, family-run business which distributes hardwood flooring from top-quality mills from all over the world. Characteristic species include hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata), groundnut (Apios americana), virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana), wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), honeysuckles (primarily Lonicera dioica), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), and riverbank grape (Vitis riparia). Wetlands 26: 107-118. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, About the Natural Community Classification. Albert, J.M. Stands that contain conifers may represent converted hardwood-conifer swamp, rich tamarack swamp, or rich conifer swamp. Rare animals include the red-shouldered hawk, Indiana bat, several amphibians (smallmouth salamander, sp… Plant community survey of the Lake Erie Drainage. Shallow kettle depressions and the margins of large forested and non-forested peatlands may also support hardwood-conifer swamp, but the community is absent from areas where significant peat accumulation isolates the rooting zone from contact with mineral-rich groundwater. Michigan Botanist 42: 111-126. Black ash, northern white- cedar, quaking aspen, balsam poplar, American elm, balsam fir and cotton-wood each make up 2 to 4 percent of the volume. Geographic variants occurring primarily north of the tension zone include stands that are dominated almost exclusively by hemlock and in the western Upper Peninsula by hemlock and yellow birch. About 55 tree species make up swamp hardwood forests across Michigan. Flooding plays a role in the southern hardwood swamp and emergent marsh—standing water typically occurs in swamps during winter and spring, and emergent marshes are subject to frequent or seasonal flooding. The warbling vireo, northern oriole, red-eyed vireo, indigo bunting, gray catbird, and eastern wood pewee are birds that live in these forests. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Report No. Michigan Natural Community Classification [web application]. Typical species of hollows and open, mucky flats include jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), beggar-ticks (Bidens spp. This type is best developed in glaciated southeastern Wisconsin but was not of large extent even prior to EuroAmerican settlement. Related terms: bog, cienega, marais, marsh, pocosin Water. Skean, Jr. 2003. Corner, and D.W. Schuen. Version 6.1. Groundwater seepage affects species composition and structure. Factors affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great Lakes region, USA. The vicinity surrounding Bessey Creek is part of an outwash-lake plain swamp ecosystem. Swamp hardwoods may occur along rivers and bottomlands as well as in swamplands. The most common condition is a thin layer of organic soil over a poorly drained mineral substrate. In addition, the pit and mound microtopography generates fine-scale gradients of soil moisture and soil chemistry and provides a diversity of microsites for plant establishment. Corner, and D.W. Schuen. A rare habitat type called southern hardwood swamp is being restored in what was once a degraded corner of the Center, thanks to a grant from the U.S. Hardwood-conifer swamp, northern hardwood swamp, floodplain forest, and wet-mesic flatwoods. In the western Upper Peninsula, hemlock shares dominance with yellow birch in some stands. Merkey, D.H. 2006. Conservation and management of hardwood-conifer swamp should focus on the following key areas: maintenance of the coarse woody debris resource; protection of mature seed-bearing trees; maintenance of canopy gap structure; protection of groundwater and surface water hydrology; reduction of deer browse pressure; and control and monitoring of invasive species, including plants, animals, and pathogens. Riffell, S., T. Burton, and M. Murphy. Korroch. The vegetation of a white-cedar swamp in southwestern Michigan. Return intervals for destructive crown fires in conifer-dominated swamps have been estimated at up to 3,000 years in north-central Lower Michigan. Southern hardwood swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland occurring in southern Lower Michigan on mineral or occasionally organic soils dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods. Michigan includes three regions: BCR 12 (Boreal Hardwood Transition), BCR 22 (Eastern Tallgrass Prairie), and BCR 23 (Prairie Hardwood Transition). As spring floodwater drains, both the residual mucky pools and exposed tip-up mounds provide different habitat conditions, fostering high plant diversity. All of our trees are available for wholesale and retail purchase. Southern hardwood swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland occurring in southern Lower Michigan on mineral or occasionally organic soils dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods. There are 219 Swamps in Michigan. 1998. Yorks, and D.J. Lee, J.G. Price, D.M. Dead Stream Swamp, Michigan: ... (Larix laricina) is the dominant species of conifer in minerotrophic wetlands classified as rich tamarack swamp. They are found along rivers and streams of the southeast and south central United States, generally in broad floodplains. Areas of standing water are sometimes dominated by small duckweed (Lemna minor) or, in the spring, by golden saxifrage (Chrysosplenium americanum). 2007. Comer, P.J., D.A. Red maple, green ash and silver maple account for over half the volume. Along with nesting birds like the barred owl and yellow-throated warbler, neo-tropical migrants use the river and forest habitat. Overview Northern hardwood swamp is a seasonally inundated, deciduous swamp forest community dominated by black ash (Fraxinus nigra) that occurs on neutral to slightly acidic, hydric mineral soils and shallow muck over mineral soils. Removal of mature conifers from hardwood-conifer swamps should be carefully considered to avoid converting the affected stands to hardwood dominance. Haven Hill, Highland State Recreation Area, Oakland Co. Huron Swamp, Indian Springs Metropark, Oakland Co. Sheldon Forest, Stony Creek Metropark, Oakland Co. Tobico Swamp, Tobico State Game Area, Bay Co. Abrams, M.D. Hydrologic disturbances, including road construction and ditching, cause peat subsidence and decomposition and alter water tables by draining water or blocking its flow. Carved out by retreating glaciers roughly 13,000 years ago, the current basin is the headwater for the Huron, Shiawasee, and Clinton Rivers. The relative contribution of fire to hardwood-conifer swamp structure and succession is unknown, but fire does create suitable conditions for the establishment of new cohorts of several canopy dominants. Landscape ecosystems of the Maumee Lake Plain, southeastern Lower Michigan: Interrelationships of physiography, soil, and vegetation. North of the tension zone, hemlock dominates some stands, sometimes to the near exclusion of other tree species. 2006. Spruce makes up a small part of the mixed forest associations of northern Michigan, usually on wetter or colder sites. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. Vines are often conspicuous in hardwood-conifer swamps, particularly in canopy gaps and along streams. Where the primary conservation objective is to maintain biodiversity in southern hardwood swamps, the best management is to leave large tracts unperturbed and allow natural processes such as flooding, windthrow, and senescence to operate unhindered. 1975. Hardwood-conifer swamp is a minerotrophic forested wetland dominated by a mixture of lowland hardwoods and conifers, occurring on organic (i.e., peat) and poorly drained mineral soils throughout Michigan. ), oak fern (Gymnocarpium dryopteris), Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense), partridge berry (Mitchella repens), naked miterwort (Mitella nuda), dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens), and starflower (Trientalis borealis). Elsewhere in northern Michigan, lowland hardwoods and boreal conifers exhibit mixed dominance patterns that require further study. 2006. Michigan is the western edge of its range and it … Mineral soils are often acidic. 2002. As a high quality manufacturer, distributor, and exporter, Kamps’ loyal base of customers extend locally, throughout the U.S. and Canada, as well as many other regions throughout the world. Species composition within hardwood-conifer swamps exhibits considerable variation across the state. Substrate pH is also highly variable. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. 2005. BioScience 48: 355-364. Birds in depressional forested wetlands: Area and habitat requirements and model uncertainty. Removal of coarse woody debris or senesced trees from hardwood-conifer swamps should be avoided or minimized to ensure the continued viability of the system. These wet gaps create microheterogeneity that results in increased diversity of vascular plant species, including many species otherwise characteristic of open wetland types. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. This abundance of plant species in Michigan swamps is partially due to the higher levels of inflow and outflow of the surface waters (Prince 1997). Kortenhoven, C.M. There are several variants that share similar vegetative composition but exhibit different dominance patterns. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [Web application]. Hart, J.B. Raab, D.L. Cohen, and M.A. Patchy windthrow creates small-scale canopy gaps and complex microtopography, which influence ground layer diversity. The community occurs on a variety of landforms, often associated with headwater streams and areas of groundwater discharge. In the 1990's, a 24x24 Log Cabin was built of White Cedar from swamp on property. The red maple paradox. Other species include the wood duck, cottontail rabbit, raccoon, woodcock, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, and many species of migratory waterfowl. The community occupies shallow depressions and high-order stream drainages on a variety of landforms. The role of canopy gaps in maintaining vascular plant diversity at a forested wetland in New York State. High deer density has lead to significant browse pressure on conifer seedlings and saplings and resulted in poor regeneration in much of the state. Plant Ecology 181: 153-165. The community occurs on a variety of landforms, often associated with headwater streams and areas of groundwater discharge. Rooney, T.P., S.L. 2002. 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